Architectural presentation of the legacy of Islam in Andulisia. Including details of the great mosque in Cordoba and also architectural gems from Seville. The book also includes a historical account of the Muslim presence in SpainTHE inception of my work on The Alhambra, to which this book is designed to be the companion and complementary volume, was due to the disappointing discovery that no such thing as an even moderately adequate souvenir of the Red Palace of Granada, “that glorious sanctuary of Spain,” was in existence. It was written at a time when I shared the very common delusion that the Alhambra was the only word in a vocabulary of relics which includes such Arabian superlatives as the Mos que at Cordova, the Gates and the Cristo de la Luz of Toledo, and the Alcaza r at Seville . I had then to learn that while the Alhambra has rightly been accepted as the last word on Moorish Art in Spain, it must not be regarded as the solitary monument of the splendour and beauty with which the Arabs stamped their virile and artistic personality upon Andalus.
Although this book is written on orientalist lines, it gives an interesting perspective from orientalists at the turn of the 20th Century. The first part of the present volume, ” The Church of Islam,” devotes two chapters to an account of the building up of this inflexible theocracy ; the last two chapters give an account of the efforts made by a few of the Faithful to escape from the prison-house in which they had been walled up, and the results of the attempts. The Orientalist will perhaps object that the chapter entitled ” The Men of the Path,” is a very insufficient account of Moslem mysticism. I am aware that this is so. But my purpose, in the present volume, is merely to exhibit the general tendency of the movement ; its more detailed exposition I reserve for ” Islam in India.” The fourth chapter, entitled “The Free-thinkers,” and the whole of the second part, “The Supremacy of the Persians,” tells the story of the curious struggle in the bosom of Islam, between the Rationalizing spirit and the spirit of Orthodoxy, terminating in the complete triumph of the latter.
A Christian Missionary’s narrative about Islam in China. Nineteen years ago, the writer, in the course of a long overland journey across China, came for the first time into personal contact with the Chinese Moslems. A prolonged visit, one Sabbath day, in company with Mr. John Brock, to a mosque in a city on the borders of the provinces of Honan and Anhwei, gave rise to many reflections con- cerning the followers of Mohammed residing so far away from the prophet’s sacred city of Mecca. The first sight of a Moslem place of prayer, so clean and well-kept, in con- trast with the dirty condition of an ordinary Chinese temple; the absence of all images in a land given to idolatry ; the ornamental inscriptions in Arabic in preference to the Chinese character, so honoured by the Confucian scholar ; and the conversation with a Mullah on lines quite other than those generally followed by the ordinary Chinese, could hardly fail to make a lasting impression.
This thesis concerns the hypothetical reconstruction of the Islamic city of Banten, Indonesia. For more than one hundred years this site lay deserted, abandoned even be-fore the end of the Sultanates of Banten. A minor port of the north coast of Java brought to life by conquering Moslem merchant-evangelists coming from the more eastern parts of the island, Banten flourished with the spice trade during the early European expansion overseas. But its greatness was short-lived. Old Banten is a lost city, and most of its monuments are buried and covered with grass. Unfortunately, there are very few published accounts describing Banten, especially after it was conquered by Maulana Hasanuddin 1525 A.D. It quickly became the principal port in western Java, replacing Sunda Kalapa (now Jakarta, the capital of the Republic of Indonesia). As the sixteenth century passed, Banten surpassed the other competing market places along Java’s north coast, and by 1596 it was the largest and most prosperous of them all. There are also very few published accounts during the critical 70 years of its development from its founding as an Islamic city to the arrival of the first fleets from northern Europe, and they are brief.
When we consider that Islamism is so much mixed up with the British Empire, and the many milHons of Moslem fellow subjects who live under the same rule, it is very extraordinary that so little should be generally known about this religion, its history, and that of its followers ; and consequently the gross ignorance of the masses on the subject allows them to be easily deceived, and their judgment led astray by any preten- der striving to raise up an excitement against those of that persuasion. If, however, it be the duty of mankind to live at peace together, and do each other all the good, instead of all the evil, in their power, we cannot inform ourselves too much on this and kindred subjects.
In the month of Ramadan of the year eight hundred and ninety-nine [June, 1494], I became King of Farghdna.’ Such are the opening words of the celebrated Memoirs of Barbar, first of the ‘Moghul’ Emperors of Hindistan. Babar is the link between Central Asia and India, between predatory hordes and imperial government, between Tamerlane and Akbar. The blood of the two great Scourges of Asia, Chingiz and Timur, mixed in his veins, and to the daring and restlessness of the nomad Tatar he joined the culture and urbanity of the Persian. He brought the energy of the Mongol the courage and capacity of the Turk, to the listless Hindu ; and, himself a soldier of fortune and no architect of empire, he yet laid the first stone of the splendid fabric which his grand- son Akbar achieved.
THE most important contemporary European authority for the early part of Aurangzib’s reign is the French physician Bernier, who lived in India from 1659 to 1666, and whoso Travels have recently bean admirably edited by Mr. Constable. Bernier writes as a philosopher and man of the world : his contemporary Tavernier (1640-1667) views India with the professional eye of a jeweller; nevertheless his Travels, of which Dr. Ball has produced a scientific edition, contain many valuable pictures of Mughal life and character. Dr. Fryer’s New Account of India is chiefly useful as a description of the Maratha power under Sivaji, for the author during his visit to India (1672-81) did not extend his travels further north than Siirat. Like Fryer, Ovington (1689-92) did not go to the Mughal Court, and his Voyage to Suratt contains little beyond what the English merchants of Bombay and Surat (the only places he visited) chose to tell him. Something may be gleaned from Yule’s elaborate edition of Hedges’ Diary as to the Mughal pro- vincial administration in 1682-4 ; and Dr. Gemelli Careri’s visit to Aurangzib’s camp in the Deccan in 1695 throws light on an obscure portion of the reign. Catrou’s Histoire Generate de V Empire du Mogol (1715), founded on the Portuguese memoirs of ‘ M. Manouchi.
A valuable study of the early conquest of Central Asia , known as Transoxia. Whilst the Ummayads where busy conquering the Maghrib and Andalusia, Persia, and the Sudan , they also brought Islam to the Turkic dominated Central Asia. This would have far reaching consequences in the development of the islamic empires. With the conversion to Islam of the Turkic People , Islam would find a new beacon. From the Turkic Slave empires in India and egypt, to the Defence of Islam against the Monghul Hordes, at Ain Jalot, to the founding of the Delhi and subsequent Mughal Dynasties in India. This conversion of Central Asia would also give rise to central asian dynasties such as the Seljuk Dynasty, the Timurid Dynasty and ultimately the Ottomans.
In this brief, indispensable guide, Irwin introduces the stunning Moorish palace and fortress complex, revealing its mysteries, myths and significance with wit and insight. He opens with a romantic description of the fairytale structure, which he then deliciously demolishes. Includes a detailed floor plan, sketches and aerial photographs.
The whole of mankind—-Muslims as well as non-Muslims, and the peoples of the East as well as the West—-are today beset with a grave evil: their lives are governed by a culture that was born in crassmaterialism and as now totally steeped in it. The practical policies as well as the theory of this cultureare based on perverse and unstable foundations. Its philosophy and science, its ethical values and social system, its law and politics, in short every feature of this culture, made a wrong direction. And ithas now reached a critical stage of decline which is not very far from collapse and total ruin.