THE national Turkish traditions preserved by the Persian historians Rashid-ed-Din and Jowaini from Uigurian books, now lost, point to the region watered by the Selenga and its affluents, the Orkhon and the Tugela, as the primitive seat of the Turkish people. But already as early as the sixth century A.D. the Turks had their traditional hero in Khan Disabul, the ” Master of the Seven Races, and Lord of the Seven Climates of the World,” who exchanged embassies with Justinian, and whose friendship the Roman Emperor desired in order that in the words of his Ambassador to the Golden Mountain “a strict alliance, without envy or deceit, might for ever be maintained between the two most powerful nations of the earth.” 1 Somewhere about the second decade of the thirteenth century, the little Turkish tribe destined in due course to found the Ottoman Empire was driven by invading Mongols from its original home, and, passing through Persia, entered Armenia under the leadership of Suleyman Shah, its hereditary chief. His son and successor, Erto- ghrul, while wandering with his warriors over those wide Asian lands, came one day upon two armies engaged in desperate conflict. Riding at once to the assistance of what appeared to be the weaker party, their assailants a horde of Mongols who had invaded the territories of Ala-ed-Din, Sultan of Konieh, the ancient Iconium.
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